Specific Learning Difficulty is a developmental neurological problem. Simply put, there is a difference in the brain's working system. ELELE Child and Family Psychological Counseling Development and Training Center Psychologist and Special Education Specialist Bihter Mutlu Gencer “People with learning disabilities have normal or supernatural mental capacity, but are diagnosed with difficulties in some areas of learning. ”
Sensing organs from the outside world with the help of the perception of information, processing, meaning, ordering, organizing, old and new information to establish a connection, storage, and if necessary to withdraw from the place where it is stored and re-used "learning" Each of the steps should work in a coordinated way so that the learning process can take place. When there are problems in one or more of these steps, a picture of learning disability emerges.
Ih Learning difficulties can be defined specifically as follows: B says Bihter Mutlu Gencer.
Reading Difficulty - Dyslexia: It is the situation in which the child has difficulty in establishing the sound-symbol relationship and reading the written words during the school period, which has language development problems at the base.
Difficulty of Writing- Dysgraphia: It is based on visual perception and hand-eye coordination difficulties and the person has difficulty in creating and writing letters.
Math Difficulty (Dyscalculia): To be able to learn basic or complex mathematical concepts and connect with what they have learned and add new concepts, solve arithmetic problems, and so on. difficulties.
Audio-Visual Perception Difficulties: Difficulties in listening, understanding, following and analyzing the complex language system of the person in the auditory field although they have normal hearing and visual functions; In the visual field, it is a situation where it has difficulties such as interpreting visual information, focusing on details and determining direction.
Nonverbal Learning Disabilities (NLD) It is a situation in which the brain is experiencing difficulties related to visual-spatial organization as well as the necessities of social communication and interaction.
According to researches, the incidence of learning disabilities in our society is around 6 percent. Considering that this number is around 15 percent in the American and European countries, it is understood whether the learning disability in our country can be fully recognized. If 15 percent is taken and the average class size is around 40, it is a fact that approximately 6 children in each class may have some kind of learning difficulties. In this case, it is very important that our teachers have knowledge about learning difficulties.
Being alert about learning difficulties in preschool period:
Learning difficulties are usually recognized when the child's school life begins, unless there are obvious symptoms. However, learning difficulties may also give signals in the early stages. For this reason, it is very important that parents have knowledge about this issue while children are growing up. The sooner the areas where the child is inadequate are noticed and the intervention is started, the less the difficulties that the child will experience during his / her education. The following signs it does not necessarily guarantee a learning disability however, close monitoring of parents and preschool educators is important in these situations.
● Delay in walking, walking without crawling, crawling differently from normal (such as back crawling)
● Can not use thick and thin muscles in a coordinated way, hitting objects, dropping objects, clumsiness
● Delay of fine muscle and hand-eye coordination skills (late learning of pastel, scissors, button buttoning according to age group)
● Delay of hand preference (one right, one left hand)
● Delay of speech
● Articulation problems
● Lack of vocabulary according to age group
● Difficulties in learning basic concepts such as colors, shapes, numerical multiplicities, classifications, similarities and differences
● Difficulty following rules and routines
● Difficulties in starting and maintaining friendships
● Distraction and inability to stay in place
Difficulties in School:
● Difficulty in establishing a sound-symbol relationship, that is, the sound of t t t cannot come to mind or vice versa
● Slow reading, inability to understand reading
● Reverse reading sten many ”instead of“ coach okuma reading
● Inability to understand syllable, word, sentence, paragraph concepts and their connections
● Reverse letters and numbers
● Difficulty in learning spelling rules
● Not reading the article
● Difficulties in verbal and written expression (writing paragraphs or essays)
● Short-term or long-term memory difficulties
● Difficulty in learning new concepts
● Difficulty in learning the concept of time and inability to set time
● Doing homework and not working system
● Attention and concentration difficulties
As noted above, early recognition of the condition plays an important role in the treatment process. Then, an expert working on this subject should be discussed and the child should be evaluated extensively. The aim of this assessment is to determine which learning areas have problems. Then, special training activities are started to develop these areas. When discussing the results of the evaluation with the family, it should be clearly explained to the child that he / she has a different learning style and the work to be done should be explained to him / her. The point that should not be overlooked at this stage is that a child with learning difficulties may experience significant self-confidence due to his failure in school and various fields. Therefore, it is very important to identify the strong areas of the child during the assessment. (For example, the child may have difficulty reading but can play basketball very well…) These strong areas should be reminded from time to time by both parents and educators. Both in academic and social activities, it is necessary to support the child to perform in areas where he / she may feel successful.
ELELE Child and Family Counseling Development and Education Center
(212) 223 91 07